Dermal penetration of metal oxides


Most investigations so far have been in vitro using diffusion cells, with few animal studies and fewer in vivo human studies reviewed in Monteiro-Riviere and Baroli, and Sadrieh et al. Normally, nanoparticles applied to the skin can be removed by washing. Here, we review several factors that may influence experimental results for dermal penetration including the species studied human, or animal model , size and coating of the metal oxide nanoparticles, composition of the sunscreen formulation, site of sunscreen application, dose and number of applications, duration of the study, types of biological samples analysed, methods for analysing samples, exposure to UV and skin flexing. J Invest Dermatol PLoS One 7 5: However, possibly due to many different experimental protocols in use, conclusions over the potential penetration to viable skin are mixed.
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Nanoparticle dermal absorption and toxicity: A review of the literature

PLoS One 7 5: The number of immune cells T lymphocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and mast cells infiltrating the skin in antigen-sensitised mice was attenuated in the presence of ZnO NPs. Nanoparticle characteristics For the purpose of this report, the definition of TiO2 and ZnO NPs includes materials within the nanosize range of 1 to nm. Environ Sci Technol TiO2 NPs could also induce a pre-malignant phenotype in AGS cells human gastric epithelial cells characterised by enhanced DNA damage and proliferation, apoptosis resistance and increased invasiveness Botehlo et al. A study was conducted in mice to determine whether ZnO NPs could be detected in organs after topical application of sunscreen Osmond-Mcleod et al. There was evidence of minimal penetration into the stratum granulosum of the viable epidermis only for coated ZnO NPs.
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Nanoparticle dermal absorption and toxicity: A review of the literature (PDF Download Available)

Interestingly, the removal of the stratum corneum resulted in negligible adhesion of the sunscreen. Mice that were orally administered TiO2 daily for 6 months exhibited lower body weight gain and significant kidney pathology attributed to NP-induced oxidative stress Gui et al. TiO2 NPs could also induce a pre-malignant phenotype in AGS cells human gastric epithelial cells characterised by enhanced DNA damage and proliferation, apoptosis resistance and increased invasiveness Botehlo et al. Most critically, the determination of 68Zn ion concentration in the blood as evidence of systemic or dermal exposure to ZnO NPs does not necessarily prove the dermal penetration of, or systemic exposure to, ZnO NPs.
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Dermal penetration of metal oxides
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Dermal penetration of metal oxides
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Literature review on the safety of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens

Dermal penetration of metal oxides



Description: Sci Total Environ Of paramount importance is the finding that the vast majority of studies do not demonstrate NP skin penetration; the current weight of evidence suggests that TiO2 and ZnO NPs do not reach viable skin cells even in compromised skin or the general circulation, but rather remain on the skin surface and in the outer layer of the stratum corneum, a surface layer of non-viable, keratinized cells. ZnO NPs also failed to induce skin sensitization in guinea pigs during or up to 48 h after the elicitation phase after an induction phase that involved weekly application of NPs for 3 weeks Kim et al. This review includes assessments of NP preparations that contain aggregates and agglomerates.

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